01-20: Growing Trees From Seeds
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01-20: Growing Trees From Seeds

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Maple and oak trees with branches full of seeds at the end of summer got American plant expert Lee Reich thinking about how trees grow.
枫树和橡树在夏末的枝桠上长满了种子,这让美国植物学家李瑞奇开始思考树木是如何生长的。
He remembers how, a few years ago, he decided to drop an apple seed into some soil he had placed in a small container. Reich imagined his small seed would turn into a beautiful apple tree. But, it didn't work out. The seed germinated and started growing. But then, it stopped growing when it was just 10 centimeters tall.
他记得,几年前,他决定把一粒苹果种子扔进他放在一个小容器里的土壤里。赖希想象他的小种子会变成一棵美丽的苹果树。但是,没有成功。种子发芽并开始生长。但是,当它只有10厘米高的时候就停止了生长。
How come?
怎么会?
Reich said most seeds that come from colder parts of the world need special treatment before they will grow. He found out that he was lucky his seed grew at all!
赖希说,大多数来自世界较冷地区的种子在生长前需要特殊处理。他发现自己很幸运,他的种子居然长出来了!
Reich now knows how to grow a tree from seeds. When those seeds fall from the branches of tall trees, they cannot start growing right away. Reich noted that the young trees would die during the cold winter if they start growing immediately.
赖希现在知道如何用种子来种树了。当这些种子从高大的树枝上落下时,它们就不能马上开始生长。赖希指出,如果这些幼树立即开始生长,它们会在寒冷的冬天死去。
So, most seeds know how to stay asleep during the winter until warmer weather comes. That is when they can grow well. But, if you do not want to wait all winter for your seeds to grow, Reich has some suggestions.
所以,大多数种子知道如何在冬天保持睡眠,直到天气变暖。那时他们才能长得好。但是,如果你不想等到整个冬天你的种子生长,赖希有一些建议。
‘Fool the seed'
“愚弄种子”
Reich said you can "fool the seed" into starting to grow.
赖希说你可以“愚弄种子”让它开始生长。
The way to do this is by placing the seeds into plastic bags filled with potting soil that is a little wet. Then put the bags into a cool place like a garage or refrigerator. The process is known as "stratification."
方法是把种子放进塑料袋里,里面装满有点湿的盆栽土。然后把袋子放在凉爽的地方,比如车库或冰箱。这个过程被称为“分层”
It is important to keep the seeds cool, but not too cold, for a few months. The temperature needs to be above freezing but below 10 degrees Celsius.
在几个月内保持种子凉爽是很重要的,但不要太冷。温度必须高于零度,但低于10摄氏度。
Reich said you might have a little more work to do before stratification, depending on what kind of seed you are growing.
赖希说,在分层之前,你可能还有一点工作要做,这取决于你种的是哪种种子。
Harder seeds first need to be softened to let water get in. Such hard seeds come from redbud, juniper and hornbeam trees.
较硬的种子首先需要软化,让水分进入。这些坚硬的种子来自紫荆、杜松树和犀牛。
To get water inside the seed, you need to nick them with a small, sharp object. The other way to soften a seed's hard shell is to put them in soil and leave them in a warm room for two or three months. Then you can begin stratification.
要想在种子里获得水分,你需要用一个小而锋利的物体划开它们。另一种软化种子硬壳的方法是把它们放在土壤里,放在温暖的房间里两三个月。然后你就可以开始分层了。
Once the seeds are stratified and conditions are right, they will start to grow roots. For sugar maple trees it might take three months. For apple seeds, it might take only two months.
一旦种子分层并且条件合适,它们就会开始生根。对于糖枫树来说可能需要三个月。对于苹果种子来说,可能只需要两个月。
But Reich shares a warning. Don't forget about your stratifying seeds! One week, he said, they could be asleep. The next week, they could have fat, white roots. Once your seeds start to grow roots, you can put them in a container, or pot. Or, if you are not ready, keep them somewhere cool until you are ready to plant them outdoors.
但赖希也有同样的警告。别忘了你的分层种子!有一周,他说,他们可能睡着了。接下来的一周,它们可能会长出又肥又白的根。一旦你的种子开始生根,你就可以把它们放在一个容器或罐子里。或者,如果你还没有准备好,把它们放在凉爽的地方,直到你准备好把它们种在户外。
Reich noted that some people may wonder what the point is of all this trouble when you can just buy a small tree at a garden center.
赖希指出,有些人可能会想,当你可以在花园中心买一棵小树的时候,这些麻烦有什么意义。
"You're a gardener, you like to grow plants," he explained.
“你是一个园丁,你喜欢种植植物,”他解释说。
Reich also said how satisfying it is to look up after many years at a tall tree that you once started from just a seed.
赖希还说,多年后抬头仰望一棵高大的树是多么令人满足,你曾经从一颗种子开始。
I'm Dan Friedell.
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Words in This Story


branch –n. a part of a tree that grows out from the main body, or trunk
gardening –n. the act of taking care of the plants on an area of ground (v. garden)
germinate– v. to begin to grow (a seed)
pot– v. to plant something in a pot
garage– n. a building or part of a building where a car is kept
refrigerator – n. a device or room that is used to keep things (such as food and drinks) cold
stratification – n. the act of arranging something in layers
nick– v. to cut or damage a small part of the surface of something

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