3册-001.3 | 【 语言现象】如何冷静、客观地看待“被动语态”
 9.05万

3册-001.3 | 【 语言现象】如何冷静、客观地看待“被动语态”

倍速播放下载收听

00:00
18:46

粉丝量突破100万,福利大放送!9月17日—21日,关注微信公众号“不一样的新概念”,参与“百万粉丝0元领课”活动,即可免费领总价398元的《新概念1-3册领读课》【英音版】及【美音版】共 2 门课程!数量有限,送完即止!


【咨询下单赠精品课程】课程咨询、报名、领取讲义的学员请添加助教微信:xingainian2801。
>>已成功报名请凭购课截图领取电子讲义、学习群打卡、答疑服务及精品赠课,数量有限,送完即止!


被动语态的百年之战 

被动语态反对派人物&相关著作


1. William Strunk《英文写作指南》~The Elements of Style:提出减少被动态的使用。

2. Henry Watson Fowler:A Dictionary of Modern English Usage《现代英语用法词典》:“…Passive voice sometimes leads to bad grammar, false idiom, or clumsiness.”


3. George Orwell:《政治与英语语言》Politics and the English Language:  "Never use the passive where you can use the active.”

4. 《英国自然杂志》Nature:公开反对被动语态的使用,鼓励撰稿人多用主动语态。


被动语态支持派人物&经典名段中的被动语态


5. Geoffrey Pullum:"The passive is not an undesirable feature limited to bad writing, it's a useful construction often needed for clear expression, and every good writer uses it.”


6. 美国《独立宣言》United States Declaration of Independence:

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.


传世名句中的被动语态:1)All men are created equal. 人人生而平等。

2)be endowed by sb. with sth. 被sb.赋予sth.


如何用对被动语态 


1.  产生距离感: Distancing

功能:凸显观点客观性,多用于科学类报道,新闻报道等。


1) I believe that…—> It is believed that….

2) Six shops were burned to the ground last night.  昨夜,六家商铺烧为平地。

3) “I am honored to win this prize.”

PK  “I am honored to be awarded with this prize.”(营造谦逊的效果)


2. 用来控制信息:Information-Control


1)  被动语态用以隐藏信息                                                           

Mistakes have been made in the experiment. 实验中出了些错误。


场景一:当实验出了错,2名助理反复检查的各自负责的部分,确定2人都没有错误,此时,组长说:Mistakes have been made in the experiment. 潜台词是啥?

场景二: 当实验出了错,组长反复检查了自己负责的部分,确定没有错误,此时,组长说,Mistakes have been made in the experiment. 潜台词又是啥?


2)被动语态用以凸显信息

Don't you see? The diamond was stolen by the guard himself!

还不明白吗?偷走钻石的人就是警卫他自己!


3. 用来侧重视角: Highlight of POV (Point of View)

1) Pumas are large, cat-like animals which are found in America.

2) A wild puma had been spotted forty-five miles south of London.

3) Paw prints were seen in a number of places and puma fur was found clinging to bushes.


4. 流畅叙述:Smoothing Narration


1) A car hit a little girl who was sent to the nearest hospital as soon as possible.

2) A car hit a little girl whom people sent to the nearest hospital as soon as possible. 强迫读者切换了视角,导致阅读不顺畅。

3) When reports came into London Zoo that a wild puma had been spotted forty-five miles south of London, they were not taken seriously.


关于“视角一致”

1. When London Zoo received reports that a wild puma had been spotted forty-five miles south of London, they were not taken seriously.

—> When London Zoo received reports that a wild puma had been spotted forty-five miles south of London, it did not take them seriously.


课后挑战 

参考答案见最后,自行练习后可对照答案

请修改下面句子,使其前后视角一致。

After the story was written by Mr. Brown that a ghost had been haunting the old house, he successfully got the public attention.




【课后挑战参考答案】


Afterthe story was written by Mr. Brown that a ghost had been haunting the old house, it successfully got the public attention.

或者After Mr. Brown wrote the story that a ghost had been haunting the old house,he successfully got the public attention.



评论

    还没有评论,快来发表第一个评论!

打开喜马拉雅,发表评论